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usand years. It is a small fish, with maximum lengths of up to 30 mm (1.2 in). Individuals vary in coloration based on age and sex: males are bright metallic blue while females and juveniles are more yellow. A defining trait of this species is its lack of pelvic fins. The pupfish consume nearly every available food resource at Devils Hole, including beetles, snails, algae, and freshwater crustaceans, with diet varying throughout the year. It is preyed on by the predaceous diving beetle species Neoclypeodytes cinctellus, which was first observed in Devils Hole in 1999 or 2000. Reproduction occurs year-round, with spikes in the spring and fall. Females produce few eggs, though, and the survivorship from egg to adult is low. Individuals live 10–14 months. Devils Hole is more than 130 m (430 ft) deep, though pupfish are only found in the upper 24 m (80 ft). The water is a constant temperature of 33 °C (91 °F) and dissolved oxygen l
evels are low. A small, shallowly submerged rock shelf provides critical feeding and spawning habitat for the pupfish. Nearby agricultural irrigation in the 1960s and 1970s caused the water to drop in Devils Hole, resulting in less and less of the shelf remaining submerged. Several court cases ensued, resulting in the Supreme Court case Cappaert v. United States, which determined that the preservation of Devils Hole as a National Monument in 1952 implicitly included preservation of adequate groundwater to maintain the scientific value of the pool and its fauna. Other threats faced by the species include flash floods, earthquakes, and vandalism. Devils Hole Pupfish sign As its entire native range is a single locality, efforts to create other populations have proceeded since the 1960s and 1970s, most of which have failed. Three refugia were created in 1972, 1973, and 1990, though all were clo