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he biggest advantage of conductive polymers is their processability, mainly by dispersion. Conductive polymers are not plastics, i.e., they are not thermoformable, yet they are organic polymers, like (insulating) polymers. They can offer high electrical conductivity but have different mechanical properties than other commercially used polymers. The electrical properties can be fine-tuned using the methods of organic synthesis and of advanced dispersion. The linear-backbone polymers such as polyacetylene, polypyrrole, and polyaniline are the main classes of conductive polymers. Poly(3-alkylthiophenes) are the archetypical materials for solar cells and transistors. Conducting polymers have backbones of contiguous sp2 hybridized carbon centers. One valence electron on each center resides in a pz orbital, which is orthogonal to the other three sigma-bonds. The electrons in these delocalized orbitals have high mobility when the material is doped by
oxidation, which removes some of these delocalized electrons. Thus the conjugated p-orbitals form a one-dimensional electronic band, and the electrons within this band become mobile when it is emptied partly. Despite intensive research, the relationship between morphology, chain structure, and conductivity is poorly understood yet. Due to their poor processability, conductive polymers have few large-scale applications. They have some promise in antistatic materials and have been built into commercial displays and batteries, but have had limits due to the production costs, material inconsistencies, toxicity, poor solubility in solvents, and inability to directly melt process. Nevertheless, conducting polymers are rapidly gaining attraction in new uses with increasingly processable materials with better electrical and physical properties and lower costs. With the availability of stable and reproducible dispersions, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polyaniline have gained s
ome large-scale applications. While PEDOT is mainly used in antistatic applications and as a transparent conductive layer in the form of PEDOT and polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS, mixed form: PEDOT:PSS) dispersions, polyaniline is widely used to make printed circuit boards, in the final finish, to protect copper from corrosion and preventing its solderability. Newer nanostructured forms of conducting polymers provide fresh impetus to this field, with their higher surface area and bettThe first time in history molecular electronics are mentioned was in 1956 by the German physicist Arthur Von Hippel, who suggested a bottom-up procedure of developing electronics from atoms and molecules rather than using prefabricated materials, an idea he named molecular enginee