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tage Trees of Chandigarh Peepal the Heritage Tree of Chandigarh at Sukhna Lake Main article: Heritage Trees of Chandigarh Many trees in Chandigarh are given a status of the natural heritage of the city. The Chandigarh government have identified a list of 31 trees as Heritage Trees. Department of forest & wildlife Chandigarh administration is the nodal department for this purpose which has published a detailed booklet about it. The trees which are 100 years or more old have been given heritage status. Landscape Sailing at Sukhna Lake Sukhna Lake, a 3 km2 artificial rain-fed lake in Sector 1, was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills. Chandigarh has a belt of parks running from sectors. It is known for its green belts and other special tourist parks. Sukhna Lake itself hosts the Garden of Silence. The Rock Garden, is located near the Sukhna Lake and has numerous sculptures made by using a variety of different discarded waste materials. The Zakir Hussain Rose Garden (which is also Asia's largest rose garden) contains nearly 825 varieties of roses in it and more than 32,500 varieties of other medicinal plants and trees. Other gardens include the Garden of Fragrance in Sector 36, Garden of Palms in Sector 42, Butterfly Park in Sector 26, Valley of Animals in Sector 49, the Japanese Garden in Sector 31, the Terraced Garden in Sector 33, Shanti Kunj Garden, the Botanical garden and the Bougainvillea Garden. There is also a Government museum and art gallery in Sector 10, Chandigarh. Demographics Historical population Year Pop. ±% p.a. 1901 21,967 — 1911 18,437 −1.74% 1921 18,133 −0.17% 1931 19,783 +0.87% 1941 22,574 +1.33% 1951 24,261 +0.72% 1961 119,881 +17.32% 1971 257,251 +7.93% 1981 451,610 +5.79% 1991 642,015 +3.58% 2001 900,635 +3.44% 2011 1,055,450 +1.60% source: Population Population growth in Chandigarh over the years. As of 2011 India census, Chandigarh had a population of 1,055,450, making for a density of about 9,252 (7,900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 818 females for every 1,000 males. The child sex ratio is 880 females per thousand males. Chandigarh has an effective literacy rate of 86.77% (based on population 7 years and above), higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%. 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age. The population of Chandigarh forms 0.09 per cent of India in 2011. There has been a substantial decline in the population growth rate in Chandigarh, with just 17.10% growth between 2001 and 2011. Since, 1951–1961 the rate has decreased from 394.13% to 17.10%. This is probably because of rapid urbanisation and development in neighbouring cities. The urban population constitutes as high as 97.25% of the total and the rural population makes up 2.75% as there are only a few villages within Chandigarh on its Western and South-Eastern border and the majority of people live in the heart of Chandigarh.[citation needed] Languages Languages of Chandigarh (2011) Hindi (57.60%) Punjabi (22.03%) Urdu (1.00%) Nepali (0.62%) Bengali (0.59%) Tamil (0.53%) Others (1.63%) Bhojpuri (16%) English is the sole official language of Chandigarh. The majority of the population speaks Hindi (57.60%) while Punjabi is spoken by 22.03%. Government schools use English, Hindi, and Punjabi textbooks. The percentage of Punjabi speakers has come down from 36.2% in 1981 to 22.03% in 2011, while that of Hindi speakers has increased from 51.5% to 73.6%. However, many languages such as Haryanvi and Pahari are count