There are few foods more comforting and enjoyable than bread...
Whether it is a warm piece of focaccia dipped in olive oil... a sandwich on a chewy baguette... a flaky croissant... or even the simplest slice of toast with butter...
Just thinking about these foods makes your mouth water!
And the blissful “intoxication” you experience when you eat bread is real.
In fact, you might say bread is the original food addiction.
Traditional bread produces compounds called gluteomorphins
. And as their name implies, these compounds engage opioid receptors
in your brain – the same receptors triggered by drugs like morphine and heroin.
Very similar compounds, called casomorphins
, are found in cheese.
That would certainly explain the euphoric rush of pleasure you feel, when biting into a crusty slice of pizza with bubbly, melted cheese!
nel. The bird can sing at the same frequency as the tail-feather chirp, but its small syrinx is not capable of the same volume. The sound is caused by the aerodynamics of rapid air flow past tail feathers, causing them to flutter in a vibration, which produces the high-pitched sound of a courtship dive. Many other species of hummingbirds also produce sounds with their wings or tails while flying, hovering, or diving, including the wings of the calliope hummingbird, broad-tailed hummingbird, rufous hummingbird, Allen's hummingbird, and streamertail, as well as the tail of the Costa's hummingbird and the black-chinned hummingbird, and a number of related species. The harmonics of sounds during courtship dives vary across species of hummingbirds. Wing feather trill Male rufous and broad-tailed hummingbirds (genus Selasphorus) have a distinctive wing feature during normal flight that sounds like jingling or a buzzing shrill whistle. The trill arises fr
om air rushing through slots created by the tapered tips of the ninth and tenth primary wing feathers, creating a sound loud enough to be detected by female or competitive male hummingbirds and researchers up to 100 m away. Behaviorally, the trill serves several purposes: Announces the sex and presence of a male bird Provides audible aggressive defense of a feeen courting, the male Anna's hummingbird ascends some 35 m (115 ft) above a female, before diving at a speed of 27 m/s (89 ft/s), equal to 385 body lengths/sec – producing a high-pitched sound near the female at the nadir of the dive. This downward acceleration during a dive is the highest reported for any vertebrate undergoing a voluntary aerial maneuver; in addition to acceleration, the speed, relative to body length, is the highest known for any vertebrate. For instance, it is about twice the diving speed of peregrine falcons in pursuit of prey. At maximum descent speed, about 10 g of gravitational force occur in
the courting hummingbird during a dive (Note: G-force is generated as the bird pulls out of the dive). By comparison to humans, this is a G-force acceleration well beyond the threshold of causing near loss of consciousness in fighter pilots (occurring at about +5 Gz) during flight of fixed-wing aircraft in a high-speed banked turn. The outer tail feathers of male Anna's (Calypte anna) and Selasphorus hummingbirds (e.g., Allen's, calliope) vibrate during courtship display dives and produce an audible chirp caused by aeroelastic flutter. Hummingbirds cannot make the courtship dive sound when missing their outer tail feathers, and those same feathers could produce the dive sound in a wind tun