There are few foods more comforting and enjoyable than bread...

Whether it is a warm piece of focaccia dipped in olive oil... a sandwich on a chewy baguette... a flaky croissant... or even the simplest slice of toast with butter...

Just thinking about these foods makes your mouth water!

And the blissful “intoxication” you experience when you eat bread is real.

In fact, you might say bread is the original food addiction.

Traditional bread produces compounds called gluteomorphins. And as their name implies, these compounds engage opioid receptors in your brain – the same receptors triggered by drugs like morphine and heroin.

Very similar compounds, called casomorphins, are found in cheese.

That would certainly explain the euphoric rush of pleasure you feel, when biting into a crusty slice of pizza with bubbly, melted cheese!


riflorus. Leaves were described, in part, as small, rounded, and spatulate-shaped, with fine, reticulate veins and a short wedge-shaped base.:?1225? In 1984, Almut Gitter Jones demoted Aster spatelliformis to a variety of A. lateriflorus.:?379? Note that it was in 1982 that Löve and Löve began moving species to the genus Symphyotrichum.:?358–359? Two years before, in 1980, Jones had placed Symphyotrichum as a subgenus of Aster.:?234? It was not until Nesom's evaluation of Aster sensu lato in 1994 that Jones' subgenus was combined with the genus.:?267? After this, Symphyotrichum lateriflorum var. spatelliforme was created, and the two former taxa became its taxonomic synonyms. Variety tenuipes refer to caption S. lateriflorum plant showing a zigzag growing pattern Symphyotrichum lateriflorum var. tenuipes (Wiegand) G.L.Nesom is commonly called slender-stalked calico aster. It was said by American botanists Henry A. Gleason and Arthur Cronquist to be a lax plant, with wiry stems, often larger heads in open panicles, and involucres to 6.5 mm. Wiegand first described it as a variety in 1928, Aster lateriflorus var. tenuipes Wiegand, with slender and "somewhat zigzag" stems, larger heads, and longer rays than the standard form of the species. He attached as holotype a specimen from Dundee, Prince Edward Island, collected in 1912 by Fernald, Long & St. John, stored as no. 814 in the Gray Herbarium.:?174? In 1943, Shinners promoted the variety to species level as Aster tenuipes (Wiegand) Shinners, specifying that it lacked the "pubescent midveins" of A. lateriflorus. This name had been in use since 1898 as Aster tenuipes Makino, native to Japan. The following year, Shinners renamed his to Aster acadiensis Shinners. Nesom cre