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Aside from Aristotle and Eudoxus, Empedocles gives an explanation that the motion of the heavens, moving about it at divine (relatively high) speed that puts Earth in a stationary position due to the circular motion preventing the downward movement from natural causes. Aristotle criticized Empedocles' case as he argued that all heavy objects go towards Earth and not the whirl itself coming to Earth. He ridiculed and claimed the Empedocles' statement to be extremely absurd. Anything that defies the motion of natural place and the unchanging heavens (including the celestial spheres would be immediately be criticized from Aristotle). Celestial coordinate systems These concepts are important for understanding celestial coordinate systems, frameworks for measuring the positions of objects in the sky. Certain reference lines and planes on Earth, when projected onto the celestial sphere, form the bases of the reference systems. These include t he Earth's equator, axis, and orbit. At their intersections with the celestial sphere, these form the celestial equator, the north and south celestial poles, and the ecliptic, respectively. As the celestial sphere is considered arbitrary or infinite in radius, all observers see the celestial equator, celestial poles, and ecliptic at the same place against the background stars. From these bases, directions toward objects in tsky can be quantified by constructing celestial coordinate systems. Similar to geographic longitude and latitude, the equatorial coordinate system specifies positions relative to the celestial equator and celestial poles, using right ascension and declination. The ecliptic coordinate system specifies positions relative to the ecliptic (Earth's orbit), using ecliptic longitud