Ticket #3461 (new)

Opened 6 months ago

Strange tribal trick heals Neuropathy FAST

Reported by: "Reverse Neuropathy" <ReverseNeuropathy@…> Owned by:
Priority: normal Milestone: 2.11
Component: none Version: 3.8.0
Severity: medium Keywords:
Cc: Language:
Patch status: Platform:


 Strange tribal trick heals Neuropathy FAST



sified played a pivotal role in its Healthcare Service division and by 1999 UnitedHealth Group accounted for 44% of Diversified Pharmaceutical Services's total membership. Express Scripts acquired Diversified in April 1999 and consolidated itself as a leading PBM for managed care organizations.

In August 2002, the Wall Street Journal wrote that while PBMs had "steered doctors to cheaper drugs, especially low-cost generic copies of branded drugs from big pharmaceutical companies" from 1992 through 2002, they had "quietly moved" into marketing expensive brand name drugs.

In 2007, when CVS acquired Caremark, the function of PBMs changed "from simply processing prescription transactions to managing the pharmacy benefit for health plans",:34 negotiating "drug discounts with pharmaceutical manufacturers",:34 and providing "drug utilization reviews and disease management".:34 PBMs also created a formulary to encourage or even require "health plan participants to use preferred formulary products to treat their conditions".:34 In 2012, Express Scripts and CVS Caremark transitioned from using tiered formularies, to those that excluded drugs from their formulary.

Market and competition
As of 2004, the Federal Trade Commission found PBMs operated in a marketplace with "vigorous competition". And as of 2013, in the United States, a majority of the large managed prescription drug benefit expenditures were conducted by about 60 PBMs. Few PBMs are independently owned and operated. PBM's operate inside of integrated healthcare systems (e.g., Kaiser Permanente or Veterans Health Administration), as part of retail pharmacies, major chain drug stores (e.g., CVS Pharmacy or Rite-Aid), and as subsidiaries of managed care plans or insurance companies (e.g., UnitedHealth Group). However, in 2016 fewer than 30 major PBM companies were in this category in the US, and only three major PBMs (Express Scripts, CVS Health, and OptumRx of UnitedHealth Group) comprised 78% of the market, covering 180 million enrollees.

In 2015, the three largest public PBMs were Express Scripts, CVS Health (formerly CVS Caremark) and United Health/OptumRx/Catamaran. As of 2018, the three largest PBMs controlled more than 80% of the mar

untitled-part.html Download


untitled-part.html Download (4.5 KB) - added by ReverseNeuropathy@… 6 months ago.
Added by email2trac

Change History

Changed 6 months ago by ReverseNeuropathy@…

Added by email2trac

Changed 6 months ago by ReverseNeuropathy@…

This message has 1 attachment(s)

Changed 6 months ago by ReverseNeuropathy@…

Note: See TracTickets for help on using tickets.