Ticket #4513 (new)

Opened 3 months ago

Affordable Foreclosures Available Today!

Reported by: "View.Foreclosure.Homes" <---ViewForeclosureHomes---@…> Owned by:
Priority: normal Milestone: 2.11
Component: none Version: 3.8.0
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Affordable Foreclosures Available Today!



in bronze on the visible shaft. The tubing was in turn fitted with metal plating, usually of copper-alloy or silver, attached by nails and rivets. In Early Medieval examples, the hook is typically formed from two separate plates fastened by a crest (coat of arms) and a binding strip, and the drop (the plate at the end of the hook) was attached separately. In some Romanesque crosiers, the crest is on the same plate as the crook, to which the drop is attached.

The crooks are positioned at the top of the shaft, and they and the drop are by far the most decorated elements. Some examples are lined with sliver, gold, glass, and niello-style inlay and openwork crests, while the crook of the Aghadoe crozier is crafted from walrus ivory. They are often ornamented with interlace designs, geometric patterns and zoomorphic (portraying humans as non-human animals) figures. The animal designs in the earliest example are depicted in a naturalistic manner, while many of the later examples bear influence from both the Ringerike and later Urnes styles of Viking art. Some of the Ringerike style animals bear close resemblance to figures on the margins of ninth-century Insular brooches. The designs on the crook of the Clonmacnoise Crozier are in the Ringerike style, and include snake-like animals with ribbon shaped bodies arranged, according to art historian Patrick Wallace, "in tightly woven knots", while the crest contains a series of "gripping dogs". The 
 Lismore Crozier contains three open-mouthed animals "connected in an Urnes-style mesh."

Crozier head in the NMI
Only five croziers contain inscriptions, however in all but two (the Kells and Lismore Croziers), the lettering is too degraded to be readable. The Lismore Crozier contains both the name of the smith (Nechtan), and the name of the Bishop of Lismore who commissioned it, as does the Kells Crozier (smith: Conduilig, bishop: Malfinnen, Archbishop of Leins

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