Ticket #5259 (new)

Opened 7 weeks ago

Scientists: Tinnitus Has Nothing To Do With Your Ears.....

Reported by: "Gregory Peters" <RingingSolution@…> Owned by:
Priority: normal Milestone: 2.11
Component: none Version: 3.8.0
Severity: medium Keywords:
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Description

Scientists: Tinnitus Has Nothing To Do With Your Ears.....

http://complediet.us/VPkZT3jAdJh0I9BaPZxwO6T6clWlLMICHzTP8ptTo-lBRJrwNA

http://complediet.us/JDY4htzNnWo--yreLPh6ZSEwxoe5KiYAfo8jFfs9UOqsER2y9w

ny echinoderms have remarkable powers of regeneration. Many species routinely autotomize and regenerate arms and viscera. Sea cucumbers often discharge parts of their internal organs if they perceive themselves to be threatened. The discharged organs and tissues are regenerated over the course of several months. Sea urchins are constantly replacing spines lost through damage. Sea stars and sea lilies readily lose and regenerate their arms. In most cases, a single severed arm cannot grow into a new starfish in the absence of at least part of the disc. However, in a few species a single arm can survive and develop into a complete individual and in some species, the arms are intentionally detached for the purpose of asexual reproduction. During periods when they have lost their digestive tracts, sea cucumbers live off stored nutrients and absorb dissolved organic matter directly from the water.

The regeneration of lost parts involves both epimorphosis and morphallaxis. In epimorphosis stem cells—either from a reserve pool or those produced by dedifferentiation—form a blastema and generate new tissues. Morphallactic regeneration involves the movement and remodelling of existing tissues to replace lost parts. Direct transdifferentiation of one type of tissue to another during tissue replacement is also observed.

The robust larval growth is responsible for the popularity of echinoderms as model organisms in developmental biology.

Reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Echinoderms become sexually mature after approximately two to three years, depending on the species and the environmental conditions. They are nearly all gonochoric, though a few species are hermaphroditic. The eggs and sperm cells are typically released into open water, where fertilization takes place. The release of sperm and eggs is synchronised in some species, usually with regard to the lunar cycle. In other species, individuals may aggregate during the reproductive season, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful fertilisation. Internal fertilisation has currently been observed in three species of sea star, three brittle stars and a deep water sea cucumber. Even at abyssal depths, where no light penetrates, synchronisation of reproductive activity in echinoderms is surpr

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